Managers will always set different accents, when it concerns their contributions to the organisation. They apply different management styles. Below we describe three styles, on the basis of the ‘input-processing-output model’.
Management by exception (MBE)
MBE is an input and resource-oriented style of management. The manager sees to the required resources. The manager, who applies this style, will usually only intervene in the execution when calamities occur. This means that he gives his employees much leeway: ‘Let them do it their way.’ The question is, whether the desired results are reached in this way.
It is of course unthinkable that a manager does not concern himself with the question of what resources are required for achieving results. You negotiate with suppliers of materials and accessories of (equipment), you make the required resources and information available, you determine when an order can be accepted and processed without any insurmountable problems, you think about the qualities of your (new) personnel and you determine which information is usable for the organisation. All of these are examples of the areas of focal attention on the input side.
Managers adopting MBE style of management tend to delegate and give directions or coaching only in case of problems. They tend not to monitor the progress of their employees work, instead, give solutions when the employees ask in case of calamity. In terms of motivation, the MBE managers expect their employees to motivate themselves.
Management by prescription (MBP)
This is a management style that is oriented on the process and the execution. The manager regulates the working activities and primarily asks himself the question how the work will be done. This is due to insecurity: ‘If they only do it well.’ Management is primarily a matter of determining what has to be done, which is carried out by means of rules, regulations, procedures, handbooks and the like. This manager sees monitoring the observance of rules and processes as his most important task.
He busied himself primarily with the development of working processes and procedures, with safety regulations, with quality-oriented directions and with questions such as: ‘How do I get the right person in the right place?’, ‘What is the maximum capacity of my machines?’, ‘What is the processing time?’, ‘What is the optimum of information that is required?’, ‘Which technology is that we have to develop, so that we can do our work as efficiently as possible?’ He also takes the requirements of workplace legislation into account and, within governmental organisations, such questions as: ‘How do we assure that legal security, equality before the law and justice are maintained?’
Under MBP style of management, power and influence is primarily located with managers and expert staff. Employees report regularly and the manager control. MBP
managers stress precise observation of rules and procedures. They motivate employees by pressuring them.
Results-oriented management (ROM)
ROM is a management style that focuses on the output or the final result. This manager gives a lot of attention to defining the desired end-result. He describes the requirements that the result must fulfil: ‘They have to know what I expect of them.’ The employee determines himself how he achieves this result. The manager focuses his attention on monitoring and possibly adjusting the achieved results.
He examines, whether the desired results are in agreement with reality. And he checks the degree of satisfaction of his consumer, and whether the products and services are qualitatively and quantitatively sufficient. If the results and its consequences (or effects on society) are not taken as a central point of departure, then one runs the risk of becoming bogged down in bureaucratic transactions, in fighting flash fires, in taking ad hoc decisions etc.
ROM Managers emphasize on delegation and expect employees to regularly inform them on work progress and achievement of results. They motivate by means of encouraging.