张 慧妍(Joanne)

关于 张 慧妍(Joanne)

张老师拥有美国 Texas A & M University组织沟通学专业的博士学位,并在The Pennsylvania State University获得语言交流学硕士学位。张老师旅居美国近十年,并曾在包括University of Maryland和费城Temple University等在内的多所美国大学任教,拥有丰富的教学及培训经验。张老师的授课对象不仅包括在校的本科和研究生,还有来自不同行业、不同层次的公司管理人员。

Inspirational stories can be an important tool for influential leadership

“In telling value laden stories from past experiences, organizational leaders and managers show their human sides.”
Powerful Tales I was recently invited to train high potential leaders at the talent summit of a large manufacturing multinational. This particular organization strives for a culture that encourages inspirational leadership. In the training, we invited the senior managers to tell stories that centered on the main cultural themes that the organization promotes.

The stories, based on their personal experiences, reflected the alignment between their personal values and those of the organization, and left participants feeling positive and inspired. Though there was confusion and anxiety at first among the Chinese managers (as storytelling as a means of influencing leadership is rarely used), in the end it was an exciting experience for them to experiment with this alternative leadership tool.
Influencing Both Halves of the Brain

As human beings, our brain has two halves: one for “thinking” the other for “feeling”. In attempting to influence others, managers are normally tempted to convince. When we influence others by convincing, we address logical thinking and make others use the “thinking” rational part of their brain.

However, we can have a more powerful effect when we can express inspirational messages that simultaneously address both the “thinking” and the “feeling” part of the other person. An inspirational pitch with stories, pictures and metaphors will spark the other person’s imagination. When we inspire others, we reach their hearts and souls. We create new and creative ideas and trigger positive feelings. An inspirational pitch is most powerful and effective when there is alignment in what the speaker thinks, feels, and says.

Authenticity and Connection
The organization we worked with stresses connection with people in leadership behaviors. Part of the connection comes from authenticity. Consequently, in our training with the high potentials, we focused on training authenticity and being real so that the senior managers could learn how to connect with their employees in a personal way.

In telling value-laden stories from past experiences, organizational leaders and managers show their human sides and demonstrate to their employees their deep-rooted belief systems, and the things that touch them the most. Thus, connections with people are built naturally through presenting the authentic self to others. And storytellers guarantee their authentic effect on the audience because they are not performers but are themselves part of the story .

The Synthesizing Mind
Dr. Howard Gardner, a psychologist at Harvard University, describes five mind-sets that are important for the future. The most important one is the synthesizing mind, which connects and combines things. This synthesizing mind is not only reflected in the way that it incorporates the ideas of the speaker, but also in the way that it incorporates the ideas of those being influenced so that people feel they are being involved. Dr. Gardner concludes: “stories constitute the single most powerful weapon in the leader’s arsenal.”

Storytelling as an inspirational pitch is particularly effective when it is linked with organizational visions and cultural themes and used in times of organizational change. In effect, it is a good starting point for getting all stakeholders involved in a dialogue. Influencing through inspiring is based on building rapport, a harmonious relationship characterized by mutual trust, respect, and understanding. When personal and organizational values are subtly transmitted in stories of personal experiences and presented in an emotionally charged way, the impact can be immense. It is a less forceful way of gaining buy-in from others and people are naturally aligned and willingly inspired.

The importance of listening cannot be over-emphasized

“Good listening skills focus more on the relationship and feelings side of people and therefore complement our efforts to convince others to our way of thinking.”

Influencing without Authority in on of our training programs, Influencing Without Authority, I have observed many recurring patterns and pitfalls that are shared by the various different groups of functional managers, project managers, and sales people who have gone through the training.

One pattern in particular is that people often equate influencing with convincing. However, convincing is a more self-centered way of communication.

For example, I recently trained a group of middle level managers at a large multinational company in the energy sector. The manager of the pricing department expressed challenges in winning support from the GM of the sales department. He was invited to roleplay his talk with the GM. In observing the conversation, we realized that both sides were busy and effective in presenting strong arguments related to their departmental interests and concerns. However, there was really no “interaction” between the two because there was no overlap in the contents discussed and neither was “listening” to the other. The result was that both were good at convincing, but no influence happened.

Good listening skills play a critical role in helping to connect two conflicting parties and open up the opportunity to solve a problem together. Without good listening, a stalemate between both sides will be the most likely result.

Here are a few reasons why using good listening skills and influencing without authority are just as important, if not more important, than being able to use verbal power to convince someone to meet your needs.

To influence is to understand
Many organizations in today’s fast-paced world have a results-driven culture. When it comes to communication, a results-driven style also becomes the norm. Values such as being direct, clear and logical with hard facts and figures are encouraged when interacting with internal and external clients.
Nevertheless, in real life situations, for influence to happen, no matter whether you are selling a product to an external client or trying to overcome a conflict with an inter-departmental colleague, understanding the other’s needs and concerns becomes critical to influence them to buy or to change opinions. Exploring a customer’s needs and challenges, or the concerns of a colleague from a different functional department, is often required if one wants to influence them. Without communication behaviors geared towards understanding of the other, efforts to influence tend to be pointless. All in all, good listening skills are the tools to use to open up, explore, and to understand our targeted person/group before making any attempt to influence them.

To be understood, first try to understand
We often hear people complain about others being too “pushy”. Constantly sending messages in hope that others will accept becomes pushy and communication becomes one way. On the other hand, listening is a sign of showing respect and is an invitation for two-way communication. Instead of pushing, we pull the other to our side. When we want to influence someone, we expect to gain their acceptance first. By practicing good listening skills we understand and show respect to others’ viewpoints first, before inviting others to listen to us. Others are more likely to be receptive to listening to us after we have listened to and respected them.

Building connections
We tend to focus on the content and rational side when communicating with others. However, building connections is just as important. Though logical arguments and strong statements backed up by hard facts and numbers can be necessary in resolving differences of opinions in organizational settings, these behaviors sometimes create distance between people. Good listening skills focus more on the relationship and feelings side of people and therefore complement our efforts to convince others to our way of thinking, and succeed in our influencing.

When we face a world of diverse employees, who each possess a different personality, being able to touch both their rational and emotional side gives us more flexibility in influencing others in the organization.

Assertive behavior creates personal and organizational effectiveness

“A work environment in which assertion is the norm will be one in which unnecessary and destructive interpersonal tensions are reduced to a minimum.”

Encourage Your Employees to Speak Up it is a fact that many individuals, for whatever reason, are not naturally assertive. They either fail to communicate their needs in a straightforward fashion, or do so in a way that is unhelpful to others. In conflict situations, they have a tendency to lose control, or alternatively, say nothing and swallow their feelings. Being assertive means standing up for oneself without unnecessarily offending others and helps create a positive and more effective workplace.

For Chinese employees working in multinational organizations, practicing assertiveness may be especially challenging as it means they must dare to speak out and express their individual thoughts and opinions when facing people in higher positions. A real-life example of this dynamic occurred while we were training the R&D managers in the Chinese office of a major US telecommunications company. Several managers expressed the wish to try new behaviors and challenge themselves to speak up in public. Coincidentally, a global director from the company’s US headquarters happened to be visiting China and a town hall meeting was scheduled.
The global director had reservations about meeting with the Chinese employees because previously they had been reluctant to express themselves. He had even decided not to mention the company’s new strategic plan at the meeting unless asked about it, as he did not expect they would offer any input or feedback. At the meeting, he was surprised to find the Chinese managers behaving assertively – part of their homework from the training. The global director was so impressed by the Chinese managers at this meeting that a year later he moved the company’s global research center to China.

Encouraging your employees to speak up is only the first step in assertiveness training. Since many issues in the workforce are caused by communication failures, it can be an important part of overall staff development.

A work environment in which assertion is the norm will be one in which unnecessary and destructive interpersonal tensions are reduced to a minimum. For this reason, many organizations now integrate assertiveness training into their mainstream management development programs. Behaving more assertively makes one more effective in one’s job. Assertion tends to breed assertion, so people are more likely to work with an assertive colleague, rather than against him/her. In turn, this makes it easier to get satisfactory outcomes. We believe assertiveness can benefit one’s personal effectiveness in many ways:
A Better Chance of Your Needs Being Met: If you behave more assertively, you state more clearly what your needs, wants, ideas and opinions are. This increases the chance that your needs will be met and your opinions taken into account. At the same time, assertion is not about ignoring or dismissing the needs of others; instead you encourage others to make their own needs known. When needs conflict, then we believe assertive behavior helps individuals find solutions that are acceptable to both people.

Greater Confidence: In some instances your needs may not be met. The important point here is that, should this happen, because you made your needs or views known, you are more likely to feel ‘okay’ about yourself and the situation. This increased confidence about yourself helps you to recognize and accept the strengths of those who work with you or for you, rather than being threatened by them.

Taking The Initiative: If you hope to influence the environment in which you work, it is important to take initiative. These initiatives may be small

— for example, putting forward an idea in a meeting, or large — such as changing the flow of work through your department. If you behave assertively you are not afraid of failure or making a mistake.

Energy Savings: When you are no longer preoccupied with not upsetting others or losing out, you will save yourself a lot of nervous energy, and experience a reduction in stress and tension associated with getting results. Decisions become less stressful because you will be less concerned with what people think and the fear of making a mistake. This allows you more time to work productively in other aspects of your job.

HED: Leading From the Inside-Out

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HED: Leading From the Inside-Out
SUBHED: Developing self-awareness is a key part of leadership development
PQ: “Leadership is not about being right all the time, it’s about being real.”

I recently joined a coaching program that offered a more holistic view on coaching, giving participants more of a “life” perspective for tackling business-related problems. We were first required to go through a process of self-discovery. Amongst the group was a senior executive/consultant who, at the end of the program, had mixed feelings about its usefulness. He enjoyed the areas covering specific coaching skills but had expected more applications with a direct business focus, rather than the “life coaching” perspective. He felt that business executives would only be willing to pay for coaching geared towards behavior improvement or business results. “Who will pay for discovering who they are and what their values are?” he said. And this would seem to be a valid concern.

I learned a lot about this executive as we went through the program together, and he showed both his strengths and his weaknesses. He dislikes having a full schedule all the time and being committed to everyone else but himself. He almost perceives there to be a contradiction between being his real self and being successful in business. His job requires him to be very creative and insightful yet rational and logical as well. When he states his opinions, he speaks with caution and authority. He is very good at advising people.
The feedback he received from the others in the group suggested that he use his intuition and show his real self more, including his artistic and fun-loving traits, and his strong desire for freedom of choice. Though he resisted the focus on self-discovery, if he acts upon the self-knowledge he gained through the program it would certainly help him achieve those results.

LEADING, NOT ACTING
This executive’s experience shows exactly why self-awareness is so critical to leadership development. Coaching from a life perspective can indirectly lead to breakthroughs and benefit senior executives. Leaders often try very hard to “act” as leaders, and to insist that they are always “right.” Employees may aggrandize their leader too, expecting them to always have the answers. As a result, sometimes a leader projects a personality to others that is quite different from whom they really are. This may cause them to behave in a certain way as to meet the expectations of others, rather than leading from the “inside out”. They may be in danger of losing the quality that is usually highly prized in a leader – their uniqueness. We usually find a leader charismatic or inspirational because of who they are as a person; this internal source of power enables them to have a strong influence on others.

FINDING YOUR ANCHOR POINTS
When learning new skills and behaviors during the coaching process, senior executives aim to get closer to ‘perfect’ – they think that it demonstrates greater leadership. In effect, however, adding new skills and behaviors is like adding new software programs to a computer. The operational system remains the same, and the source of power is external, not from within, and so becomes shaky.
When we help these executives to find out who they are, we are helping them to find their anchor points. For example, we recently developed a leadership program for the European headquarters of a multinational company, which focused extensively on leaders’ self awareness and self discovery. We worked with senior executives to identify their personality types, their typical team roles, as well as their influencing styles – in essence preparing them to know themselves first. By identifying their anchor points, they can have a more accurate self-perception and identify gaps for personal growth. It has been proven to be the most successful and well-received leadership program we have delivered so far in China. Focusing on the strengths and the core values of the individual helps them to develop a foundation for shaping their own unique style of leadership.

EFFECTIVE LEADERS GET REAL
Leadership is not about being right all the time, it is about being real. It is about authenticity and sometimes, vulnerability, as well. Daring to show weaknesses only makes a leader one of “us” and approachable to his/her followers. Authentic leadership is about daring to be one’s real self and having consistency between internal and external personality. Only when leadership is from the inside-out, can power be sustainable and influential with others.

Leading From the Inside- Out

I recently joined a coaching program that offered a more holistic view on coaching, giving participants more of a “life” perspective for tackling business- related problems. We were first required to go through a process of self-discovery. Amongst the group was a senior executive/consultant who, at the end of the program, had mixed feelings about its usefulness. He enjoyed the areas covering specific coaching skills but had expected a more direct business focus. He felt that business executives would only be willing to pay for coaching geared towards behavior improvement or business results. “Who will pay for discovering who they are and what their values are?” he said. And thiswould seem to be a valid concern.

I learned a lot about this executive as we went through the program together, and he showed both his strengths and his weaknesses. He dislikes having a full schedule all the time and being committed to everyone else but himself. He almost perceives there to be a contradiction between being his real self and being successful in business. His job requires him to be very creative and insightful yet rational and logical as well. When he states his opinions, he speaks with caution and authority. He is very good at advising people.

The feedback he received from the group sug- gested that he use his intuition and show his real self more, including his artistic and fun-loving traits, and his strong desire for freedom of choice. Though he resisted the focus on self-discovery, if he acts upon the self-knowledge he gained through the program it would certainly help him achieve those results.

LEADING, NOT ACTING

This executive’s experience shows exactly why self-awareness is so critical to leadership development. Coaching from a life perspective can indirectly lead to breakthroughs and benefit senior executives. Leaders often try very hard to “act” as leaders, and to insist that they are always “ right.” Employees may aggrandize their leader too, expecting them to always have the answers. As a result, sometimes a leader projects a personality to others that is quite different from whom they really are. This may cause them to behave in a certain way as to meet the expectations of others, rather than leading from the “inside out”. They may lose the quality that is usually highly prized in a leader– their uniqueness. We usually find a leader charis- matic or inspirational because of who they are as a person; this internal source of power enables them to have a strong influence on others.

FINDING YOUR ANCHOR POINTS

When learning new skills and behaviors during the coaching process, senior executives aim to get closer to ‘perfect’ – they think that it demon- strates greater leadership. In effect, however, adding new skills and behaviors is like adding new software programs to a computer. The operational system remains the same, and the source of power is exter- nal, not from within, and so becomes shaky.
When we help these executives to find out who they are, we are helping them to find their anchor points. For example, we recently developed a leader- ship program from the European headquarters of a multinational company, which focused extensively on leaders’ self awareness and self discovery. We worked with Chinese managers to identify their personality types, their typical team roles, as well as their influencing styles – in essence preparing them to know themselves first. By identifying their anchor points, they can have a more accurate self-perception and identify gaps for personal growth. It has been proven to be the most successful and well-received leadership program we have delivered so far in China. Focusing on the strengths and the core values of the individual helps them to develop a foundation for shaping their own unique style of leadership.

EFFECTIVE LEADERS GET REAL

Leadership is not about being right all the time, it is about being real. It is about authenticity and sometimes, vulnerability, as well. Daring to show weaknesses only makes a leader one of “us” and approachable to his/her followers. Authentic leadership is about daring to be one’s real self and having consistency between internal and external personality. Only when leadership is from the inside- out, can power be sustainable and influential withothers.

文章详情:http://www.schoutenchina.com/uploads/46.pdf

Rethinking Training Effectiveness: from the Perspective of Trainees’ Motivation to Learn

Lately, I have been giving a lot of thoughts to the longstanding question that bothers almost all training managers, that is, how to make trainings effective? Of course, our warm hearted training managers and specialists tend to exhaust themselves in their attempt to create conditions for effective training. In this article, I want to first differentiate different types of motivations that could affect training effectiveness; secondly, I want to call attention to conditions/sources of motivation that are often the most critical to learning effectiveness but are oftentimes ignored by training managers and specialists; lastly, I want to briefly explain why brain based learning is oftentimes not as effective as the experiential way of learning when it comes to adult learning.

It is useful to check beforehand where the motivation of the participants stems from. The most attractive participants are those who are motivated to attend the course ‘from within’. The participant actually does not need an incentive. This form of motivation is called ‘intrinsic motivation’. If a participant is motivated by others, this is called ‘extrinsic motivation’. A new job, a possible dismissal or a raise can be the incentives that motivate the partici¬pant. In addition, one may also have to deal with ‘conditional motivation’. Participants are motivated by all kinds of pleasant circumstances that may occur during the course, such as social contacts, etc. In addition, motivation can be influenced in a positive way, when the participant sees a meaningful relation between the learning material and what he is going to do with it. The relevance of the learning material has to be clear to the participants. The gap from theory to practice needs to be as small as possible.

What I would like to stress is that while we oftentimes recognize how external factors, such as a pay rise or a promotion opportunity can help to motivate organizational employees to learn, the ideal participants are those who are internally motivated. In reality, when identifying training needs and deciding sending whom to what training programs, HR practices can include HRs or functional managers subjectively nominating participants to attend certain learning programs. Referring back to the above mentioned motivational factors and conditions, clearly when that happens, individuals are not internally motivated to learn; neither is the participant likely to see a clear goal of the learning—the meaningful relevance of the learning. In other situations, organizational employees are sent to certain training programs due to negative performance review in certain areas (according to their direct managers) or gaps between individual competency status and competencies required for a given job according to organizational competency models. Clearly, when participants show up in a training program for the above mentioned reasons, they can be very much goal driven and can see clear “meaningful relevance” of their learning. Nevertheless, they may not be internally motivated to learn. That is, if their managers or others (say, people who are the 360 degree feedback givers) believe they should improve in certain areas, the level of motivation on the participants are still not the same as when the participants themselves recognize the needs. Therefore, only when employees are very much involved in the process of identifying learning needs and gaps and are consulted with before being sent to a training program, can they be internally motivated to learn. Clearly, the more attention we give to this step of learning preparation, the more effective we can expect the learning results to be.

Becoming internally motivated is not only relevant to the process of identifying learning needs, it is also relevant to the process of learning itself, that is, the training methods. It is not difficult to imagine, for example, a participant who is very much motivated and eager to learn comes to a very boring and didactic style training program, his/her enthusiasm for learning is immediately dampened by what is actually happening in the training site. So their internal motivation needs to be sustained in the training as well, which has a lot to do with how training is actually organized and conducted.

Traditionally, training is trainer-centered and brain-based. First, in terms of roles that trainers and participants play in training, one option is that trainers are the “stars” occupying the central stage. They are supposed to be experts that have solutions to all problems that their trainees might have. The type of training can be effective when the participants can see clear relevance to their real work situations, they cases that the trainers give can be transferrable to their work settings, and that they believe that the trainers’ knowledge and experience is relevant and helpful to their problems. Alternatively, the internal motivation of the participants can be better secured through making them the center of learning. That is, trainers are coaches and facilitators and the content of the training is from their real work and life experiences of the participants (sometimes they get help in training periodically while they are engaged in real projects). First, adults learn best or are the most motivated to learn through self awareness and self reflections. Coaches thus play the questioning role most of the time. The trainees consequently drive the process of learning with their own problems. In my opinion, this latter way of training, what we call, the experiential way of learning, fits the characteristics of adult learning much better in many situations, as they are more trainee centered (coaching/facilitating style versus didactic style) and are more directly related to application (action and behavior based versus brain based). I devote the last part of my article to an explanation of the difference between brain based training and the experiential way of learning.

Traditional training and education focuses often on the left brain (aiming at ratio, logic, analyses, language, with as result automatisms based on insight). it assumes too much that learning is made possible by the logic of the new information. The logic in itself should bring forward learning. Features of these interventions are: instruction/demonstration, systematic practice and giving feedback. At the most this kind of learning leads to the fact that the learner can tell what he has learned but in fact does not use the knowledge in his daily practice. As a result there is asynchrony between what employees think (their theories and conceptions) and what they actually do (their daily routines).

To activate the right brain part (feelings, experiences, associations, images, with as result experience based behavior), trainers should work more with imaginative language, powerful metaphors and behavior instructions. With telling how to act, without very much explaining why, it is expected that workers will act in the desired way and that insight will follow behavior . When you use a more explaining way of instruction (selling) it is expected that the logic will convince the worker and the new insight will trigger the behavior. Clearly, the linkage between theory and application can be much closer in the experiential way of learning.
To summarize, in this article I call for new perspectives and new ways of thinking in terms of guaranteeing the effectiveness of training. Training managers have been frustrated by looking for solutions to ensure the effectiveness of training. They may be happily surprised if they start to focus more on the internal motivation of the participants, not only from the perspective of identifying training needs, but also from the perspective of identify the right training methods. We can create all favorable conditions for our participants by selecting brand name vendors, by providing pleasant training environments, by developing complex competency models and elaborated process of performance appraisals, but in the end, the people who we want to train have a more decisive impact on the result of training. Only when we give sufficient attention to their motivation to learn, can we have a better chance of being effective in training them.

The Linkage between Training Effectiveness & Organizational Goals

According to a recent survey done by Universal Ideas Management Training corporation, one overarching issue that bothers HR and training managers the most is the linkage between training and the strategic/practical goals of organizations. A related issue, of course, is the recurring question of how to make training programs more effective. I want to briefly address the two issues in this article and a more elaborated article will follow later.

Regarding connecting training needs with the strategic goal of organizations, overall, I suggest that organizations don’t think of training companies as shops for specific products that apply to all problems under a given name, instead, they should think of training companies as solution providers, who can work within organizational contexts. I witness that organizations are now moving towards that direction through the following means:

 To develop a competency model and identify expected competencies for each job position. Identify gaps between each job position and competencies of individual employees filling in the job. When training needs is identified in this way, training can be oriented by specific goals. The measurement of training effect can also be connected with required competencies—whether expected knowledge or behaviors have been successfully added/improved as a result of the training.

 To connect organizational values and behavior expectations with training. When organizations are very clear and specific about what behaviors they expect from the employees, training can be used as a tool to promote organizational expectations. Similarly, training can be used a tool to promote organizational change including culture change.

 To partnership with training companies in developing long term talent/leadership development program. Instead of using training companies on case by case basis, organizations can best take advantage of their professional knowledge and expertise through jointly exploring needs and developing organization-specific programs that are oriented towards long term goals.
A follow up question, then, is how to make training effective? I propose the following thoughts:
 To give more attention to the characteristics of adult learning and make our participants the owner of their learning process. Adults can only learn when they are internally motivated through self awareness. Learning can be more effective when the participants feel active in the process.

 To make the learning process driven by clearer goals, including both organizational goals and individual goals. When the goals are specific, visible, and recognize by the participants, training can be more result-oriented.

 To focus more on behavior level training and action-centered learning. While general knowledge can be helpful, the real challenge lies in behavior change and connecting knowledge with real work.

Organizational effectiveness is achieved through personal effectiveness. When individual employees feel that they are truly respected in learning, coached in a way that can facilitate their personal development, and they can easily see performance improvement after training, they are more motivated to learn. Similarly, when individuals are performing at their best, organizational results can be maximized. Finally, organizational strategies and changes only take on real meaning when they are reflected in individual employees’ everyday behaviors, which then become trainable. The linkage between the two still takes some time to be explored and realized, but at least, we are moving towards that direction.

果敢行为训练助你搭上职场直通车

果敢行为训练助你搭上职场直通车

–提高职场能见度,提升他人认可度

最近的培训中出现了两个不错的案例。某个企业内训过程中,碰巧该公司董事长从美国来访。在董事长与普通员工之间的townhall meeting上,培训中的一位学员为了挑战自己在众人面前不愿展示自己的旧习,大胆向CEO发问,话题竟是狂向CEO推荐张裕葡萄酒。结果出人意料。董事长向身边的人事经理仔细打听此人姓名和邮件地址,并叮嘱他一定邮件跟踪此事。此后这位学员与董事长便自然而然地有了邮件往来。

另外一个案例发生在我给学员布置了向领导寻求反馈的作用之后。某个在知名外企做财务工作的学员鼓足勇气向自己老板的老板要反馈并提出希望讨论个人职业发展规划。结果竟然是这位外籍Director亲自下楼约定面谈时间。

这两个发生在果敢行为训练(Assertiveness)课上的真实案例再次证明,在当今竞争激烈人才济济的职场上,我们所鼓励学员所尝试的敢于表达展示自己的行为可以有助于提高学员在职场上的能见度,尤其是增加被所谓的“大老板”了解并赏识的机会,从而搭上职场直通车。就如同20秒钟的Elevator Talk一样,敢于抓住机会有效展示自己才有机会使自己在众多同级和上级中脱颖而出,从而为自己争取有限的资源和机遇。

与此同时,职场上的成功也依赖他人和团队的认可。有效的沟通行为不仅仅体现在善于表达自我和个人观点上,更体现在能够通过沟通建起与他人互动的桥梁和纽带,并维系和周围合作者的良好关系。只有沟通行为取得他人的认可时,沟通才是有效的。试想,上述两位学员的行为如果操作不当的话,也可以轻易引起周遭同事的反感,比如第二位学员的直接上级,而不小心影响了关系。因此,如何既敢于表达自己又不冒犯他人需要在沟通中很好地把握一个“度。”又比如,通常我们在培训中会发现,学员在试图影响他人时,往往倾力推销个人观点,而忽略了倾听和关注对方的观点。结果是沟通双方谁也无法影响谁。而我们坚持,积极倾听是联系人与人互动关系的最佳沟通手段,也是赢得他人认可和合作,乃至影响他人的前提。

总之,若想搭上职场直通车,在人际互动中的能见度和认可度缺一不可。两者相辅相成,共同塑造一个既充满亲和力又果敢和有主见的你。当你能够在沟通中从容自信时,也许你会发现,你在一步步走近自己的职业规划目标了。

Reflections on the Uniqueness of our Training

Six month ago, before the TFT (Training for Trainers) training, I had to do a PDP (Personal Development Plan), in which I was asked a question, “Imagine the sky is the limit: What would be your ideal situation after 6 months?” Now after the final two weeks’ very intensive training in Zaltbommel, Holland, I’m about to welcome the closure of the TFT program and I have to say, the benefits and the results of it was beyond my imagination before taking it. I not only truly experienced my own professional development, but also found myself to be deeply in love with the Schouten & Nelissen way of training and its training programs.

Let me use a metaphor to describe my experiences within the last two weeks’ TFT training in Holland. For me, the entire learning experience was almost like solving a puzzle. I was given a number of pieces of the puzzle during the early months and all of a sudden, during the final two weeks, I found these pieces to come together in a very coherent way and as a result, I saw a whole picture with consistent themes cutting through all pieces. That was exactly what I experienced during my stay in Holland. I clearly experienced and identified the uniqueness of the S & N way of training and I was able to tell common threads in terms of philosophies, themes, and skill sets that are stressed in all training programs at S & N. It was also deeply felt that our professional trainers have to truly believe in what they do and more importantly, practice soft skills and assertiveness in the entire process of training, from the intake interviews to the delivery of the training programs.

I also witnessed dramatic changes in the thinking of my Chinese colleagues, including myself, during these two weeks. Right before taking off for Holland, we were quite occupied with commercializing our products. That is, we attempted to come up with a program book in which we detail (to every quarter of a hour) topics we cover and exercises we do in a given training program so that an experienced trainer can carry out the training simply by reading the manual instructions. After the two weeks’ training, we gave up that idea, as we realized that it was simply not our way of training. In effect, my greatest gain from the training in Holland was to figure out that our training is always about here and now, that is, what is happening at every minute in the training site and with the participants. It was such a significant learning point to me was that when Janneke, the communication program trainer, asked what two words I want to take with me back to Beijing, I said, “Here and now.” For me, the flexibility and adaptability of the trainer to the ongoing situations during the training was the key to the uniqueness of the S & N way of training.

In terms of the uniqueness of our training, another deeply felt aspect was the focus on behavior and the use of simple exercises in our training. That can be best illustrated by our leadership program. A lot of leadership trainings in the existing Chinese market tend to stress popular theories, stories of celebrity leaders such as Peter Druck, Ma Yun, and Liu Chuanzhi, and thought provoking case studies borrowed from others. In contrast, our leadership program is designed to allow leaders at all levels to demonstrate their people skills by doing simple things, such as moving chairs, rearranging cups, and decorating rooms. It doesn’t matter what they do. What matters is that the minute we ask people to organize others to do something, we are allowed to observe their leadership skills and identify their weaknesses so that we help them to work on the improvement of their leadership behaviors. We believe, the simpler the exercises are, the more difficult for the participants to find excuses not to fulfill the task in a satisfactory way. The same philosophy applies to our other training programs, including assertiveness. When the tasks and settings get complex, surrounding factors start to intervene so that it becomes difficult for the trainers and participants to focus on related behaviors that we really need to focus on and to improve. Our experiential way of training also suggest that instead of using others’ cases, oftentimes, hypothesized ones, we prefer to elicit real difficult situations from the participants everyday work and life settings. Through conducting systematic functional analysis of their behaviors and through rebuilding the situations and trying out alternative behaviors, we help the participants to increase the awareness of the impact of their behaviors so that they learn to make conscious choices later.

Last but not least, the trip to Holland allows me to identify a good match between my personality and the organization’s culture at S & N. It is a human organization with a lot of warmth in interpersonal relationship among colleagues at all levels. I also have to say that I was deeply touched by the professionalism of the organization, as it was demonstrated by all the Dutch trainers that I encountered during the entire TFT training. The organization also impressed with the quality of its professionals who absolutely have passion for what they do. In effect, the impact of our trainings oftentimes affects who we are as a human being and how we interact in our personal lives. In that sense, the nature of our job decides that it blurs the boundary between work and life in a positive sense. That is, through our professional development, we better ourselves as human beings. I saw that happening to our Dutch colleagues and to me and my Chinese colleagues as well.

Now with the closure of the TfT training, I will be equipped with the wings to fly. And if the sky is the limit, I would enjoy the freedom as much as possible…Of course, I will always need nutrition and guidance from the mother bird.

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从团队成员的自信果敢行为看个人效能与团队效能的必然关联

joanne vt

每一个团队的领导者都希望提升自己所带领的团队的效能。美国团队建设著名专家和学者McGriffin曾指出团队的效能有三个方面的表现形式:一是绩效的高低;二是团队建设的成败;三是团队成员对于团队经历的满意度。当然,三者密切关联,互相影响。那么,如何成功打造一支有效的团队呢?这与团队成员在沟通互动中所营造的氛围密切相关。过于和谐以及只停留在表面上的和谐氛围都会阻碍团队的有效性。相反,笔者认为,一个有效的团队必定是一个强调和充分发挥个人效能的团队。通过提升团队成员的个人效能,特别是培养团队成员的果敢自信的行为,团队管理者可以全方位的提高团队的整体效能。首先,过于和谐的团队很难做到决策上的有效性。事实上,通过对美国历史上失败案例的分析,美国学者Janis 提出了著名的团队迷思(groupthink)的观点。也就是说,当一个团队过于团结时,团队成员很难从批判的角度或不同的思路去看待问题。结果很可能是团队凝聚力很强,而大家的思路和价值观却单一化,最终导致决策无效甚至是灾难的发生(譬如“挑战者”号的失事很多分析认为与团队成员不能理性评估异议有关)。

显然,过于和谐的团队很难真正发挥团队的优势功能,做出正确或高质量的决策。相反,一个有效的团队必然是一个充分发挥每个团队成员的潜能的团队。在这样的团队里,每一个决策过程都融入了集体的智慧,团队成员能够做到集思广益,敢于直言,各抒己见,并能够积极倾听不同的见解和观点。

同样,在中国的文化背景下,团队成员很容易过于顾及“关系”和“面子,”逃避和拖延处理冲突。长此以往,团队成员之间表面上和谐友好,暗地里勾心斗角,矛盾重重。显然,在这样的团队中,和谐只停留在表面,团队也无法实现有效。事实上,虽然成员之间表面上一团和气,暗地里对于彼此心怀怨气,无法敞开心扉,长此下去会造成关系的破裂,甚至团队的解散。至少,在这种情况下,团队成员会将大量的有限的精力和心思花费在应付人际关系的复杂性上,而忽略了团队的工作内容本身和绩效。

针对上述的问题,笔者认为,团队的有效性可以通过改变和提升个人在沟通中的效能来实现。通过果敢自信行为训练,团队成员个人效能可以等到提升,从而使团队达到“和而不同”的理想状态,这样真正的有利于团队效能的提升。如何做到呢?我们的行为训练关注个人的三种行为:敢于直言,敞开心扉,和坚持己见。敢于表达,是“不同”的起点;敞开心扉,是达到更高层次“和”谐的必经之路;在此基础上的坚持立场,才是真正的“和而不同”。

具体的说,首先,团队成员能够做到在团队决策的过程中,知无不言,言无不尽。有观点就会讲出来,即使是未成熟的观点,也不怕被别人笑话。团队在头脑风暴(brainstorm)的过程中,应形成鼓励发表各种相关的观点的氛围,因为一个看似不成熟甚至荒谬的观点常常可以引发许多思考,间接帮助找到最终的最优解决方案。另外,当个人形成敢于直言的习惯后,团队成员之间也会更加勇于表达个人的需求和原则,敢于说“不,”减少人际交往过程中的怨气和心理压力。当然,这一切都需要良好的沟通技巧,也就是我们培训所追求的坚持自己又不冒犯他人。这种敢于直言又具备良好的沟通技巧的个人行为不仅仅会提升团队效能,也有助于个人得到团队的认可。因为一个没有声音的团队成员一时可以做到避免冒犯他人,长远的看无法对团队做出贡献,不会被关注和认可。

自信果敢行为的另外一层含义便是在与团队成员出现冲突时,能够敞开心扉的沟通个人真实的想法和感受,以化解冲突。如上所述,很多时候,团队的矛盾被隐藏,和谐表面化。原因之一便是矛盾双方缺乏有效的沟通技巧,怯于处理矛盾。另外一个诱因便是我们东方的文化导致很多人避讳袒露真实的情感,也不善于理性化的表达情感体验。这样做的后果是使矛盾升级乃至关系的彻底破裂,比如,团队成员的离开。因此,我们的果敢行为训练致力于培训学员能够形成在沟通中敞开心扉化解矛盾的行为习惯。比如,通过有效提供反馈的培训,团队成员可以学会如何真诚而有所触动的表达对别人的言行的感受并敢于及时提供反馈。要知道人际关系中98%的冲突都因误会而起。因此,当团队成员普遍做到及时有效的反馈时,可以避免很多因误会而引起的不必要的矛盾。这样,团队可以实现真正意义上的和谐,而不是只停留在表面上。因此,敞开心扉有效反馈可以有助于团队矛盾的解决,减少人际关系的复杂性,提升团队建设的效果。

自信果敢行为的最高境界是能够在各种挑战和困境面前能够学会影响别人的行为,坚持己见。这需要与积极倾听的技巧相结合。我们认为,自信果敢的行为不只是强调以自我观点为中心,相反,我们反复强调,尊重他人是自信果敢行为的重要要素和前提条件。若想影响他人,首先需要做到听懂也尊重他人的观点,出发点,以及顾虑所在。在此基础上的坚持己见,才是我们所推崇的。另外,一个能够坚持己见也意味着不轻易被他人所左右,能够识别别人谈话表面信息之外的用意(如通过甜言蜜语达到利用人的目的),婉言拒绝扭转不合理的行为。如果在一个团队的情景下,每一个成员都能做到在积极倾听基础上的坚持己见,团队的氛围最终可以实现“和而不同。

综上所述,当一个团队的成员学会了果断自信的行为和提升个人效能之后,我们可以预见团队整体效能的提升。敢于直言,敞开心扉,坚持己见,不仅有助于个人在团队中有一个愉快的经历和感受,更有助于团队真正建设成和谐的关系和氛围。更重要的是,敢于直言,坚持己见等行为可以创造条件促成有效沟通和高质量的决策。这样,无论从哪个层面来看,团队都是有效的团队。可见,个人效能与团队效能可以通过果敢行为训练同时得到提升。

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听到自己的声音

导语:在成为思腾高级培训师之前,她曾有过数年的海外留学经历;在美国名师的熏陶和推荐下,她成功跻身美国竞争激烈的大学教授之列;几年之后她毅然归国,加入了软技能培训师的队伍。跨越中西文化的阅历,使她形成了自己独特的个人魅力,最终得到了众人的赏识;现在的她每天都很积极都很快乐,这一切源于她深爱着自己所从事的职业。

访谈对象:张慧妍
工作单位:荷兰思腾集团
职位:教学总监、高级培训师
工作年限:10年

1:您是怎么走入欧洲的顶级教育培训集团思腾中国做培训师的?

我是两年前开始做思腾的,之前有十年的海外留学经历;当我回国时,惊奇地发现思腾的课程是如此系统和完善;它所倡导的软技能培训和我在国外所学的组织沟通学的专业是完全匹配的;我们的专业领域是团队建设、领导力、演讲技能等;而思腾也把这个理念带到了中国,所以当时我很顺利地带着自己的文化和鲜明的观点进入了这家公司;我同时也看到能够在如此大的规模下,他们能保持鲜明的教学特色,并且荷兰的培训师们都非常专业,我非常高兴自己能够成为他们中的一员。

2:可以说您的加入,应该对于您自己和企业来说都是双赢的?

是的。我在美国的职业是大学教授,当时感觉自己的特长不能充分展现出来,看不到专业的实效性,这时我想回来给中国的企业做培训,这样我可以更清晰地看到自我价值的存在。另一方面,从公司招人的角度来看,思腾独特的培训方法其实对培训师的要求非常之高。因此,找到合适的培训师是个挑战。中国留学生学组织沟通学这个专业的人很少,毅然从美国归来的就更少。

我相信思腾所精通的软技能培训在中国市场上会很有前景。举个例子,在国外大多数本科生一定是要必修的“公共演讲”这门课的,否则拿不到学位证;可想而知国外学校对一个人的演讲能力的重视程度;无论在什么情况下,作为社会中的人,你都是要出去和别人打交道的;包括从学生会主席的竞选到美国民主选举总统,你必须要通过讲演去推销自己。而中国发展的趋势也慢慢需要做大量的演讲及软技能培训,全面提高自己乃至企业的社会认可度。思腾的软性管理强调以人为本,重视组织成员的心理需求,有利于充分挖掘员工的内在潜力,实现最优化管理。从抽象思维地去阅读去想去做,到最后进入培训课指导;这一段历程让我感觉到工作很有趣,生活很快乐。

3:现在您的日常工作是什么呢,它需要什么样的能力?第一是要做培训,给企业做内训;主要有销售课程,然后起草建议书,从学员的访谈到培训,从头到尾全面负责;

第二打造专业团队,让管理工作专业角度化,让其本土化进行市场包装,从荷兰那边拿到最新的东西再通过本土化引入中国市场;

第三参与本公司的运营,营销和市场这一块。

我从来就相信一个人的机遇一定是有一定的理由在里面的,我喜欢他们的培训方式和倡导的原则,让人果敢自信,让每个人参与进来,也不是进行大道理的宣讲;

尊重了每个学员,让他们在其中体验和展示自己的行为,进行互动,然后我观察他们的行为,找出突破口,然后进行反馈,找到可以提高的地方然后让他们开始重新去做。比如在人与人进行交往时,要注意眼光和手的力度的把握等,剖析、认同、改变。

这需要强大的心理学在支撑,这具有科学的根据,内容不变,但是形势更改,不能告诉学员发生了什么,要他们自己去调整达到良好的效果。

尤其现在的80后是很有个性的一族,他们在培训时不喜欢某种方式就会不需要你的,而经过两年的培训课的教学,学员都是一致认可我的,有些客户甚至很满意,我想这对于我来说是很有收效的成果。

培养学员和自己身上应该有的果敢力,坚持自己的同时也不能去冒犯别人;我们考虑的是双赢,达到人与人之间的平衡,而不是中庸妥协。

4:您在工作中遇到过困难吗,您是如何去克服的?

这是需要相当的情商和智商的一门职业,做软技能培训;

我以前有过批判到抗争到最后的接受,我们的课并不是用PPT来讲的,每次培训都需要去了解企业的人,企业的文化,个人的顾虑等等,这期间是个学不完的过程;在课堂上永远需要你去观察,然后想到怎么去干预,一定要说到学员的心坎里去,让他们愿意去做去学等;

应该说这门学科也是学无止境,我需要每天大量地进行阅读学习,才能够克服工作中出现的问题;从照抄到创新,不断更新的东西;我需要独树一帜,用高标准完善自己,这样才能对得起客户;

中国的很多培训是娱乐性的,有时学员听完很多有趣的事情,笑过后就忘记了;整堂课下来,都不会去上厕所的;事后尽管没有收效,但很多企业还在进行每年的重复劳动,而我们主张的是在对抗触动中学习;针对每一个人的特点,让他们的行为成就出更讨人喜欢的自己,生活的更加愉快;

当然目前我对自己是很满意的。

5:您最擅长哪方面的东西,如何让它得到发挥?

这是一份特别的工作,我最擅长的事情就是让每个学员迅速得到放松,可能因为本身的性格就比较随和容易让人放松;我通常会在上课前精心安排一个活动,让他们自觉融进去,不知不觉得到放松,而不是纯粹地去说教。

我上课是放权的,让学员主动去发挥自己的主观能动性;一位荷兰教授听了我的课给出了这样的评价,就是从说话到一种独特的方式的形成到学员愿意主动过来沟通,达到一定的说服力,一切都是通畅的很合理的,让人得到放松。

我想这就是我需要解决办法的能力所在。

6:在成长过程中,哪些事或哪些人对您影响是很深的?

我在美国上学时,和一群女孩子做一个项目;在交流时,我经过拼命的思想斗争最后还是没有发表自己的观点,保持沉默,最后我得了C,比小组其他人都要差的一个分数等级;后来我的教授对我说,不说话的人是不想改变自己的,这是对自己和对他人都不负责任的表现。

后来我就学会开始说话,开始发表自己观点;之前,从来没有人告诉我不说话是不负责任的事情,是那位教授提醒了我。

如果没有他的帮助,我想我可能不会变成现在的自己。

试想在会议上没有人敢发表自己的观点,一直听不到声音,也是不负责任的表现,这是需要您亮出自己的观点,从而被证明您是有想法的,否则很多事情办不成,达不到目的。

7:除了工作,您平时还有什么样的兴趣和爱好吗?

我的家里还有两个儿子,需要我去照顾;除了工作我基本没有什么时间去娱乐活动;下班后除了学习以外,还要照顾他们,培养他们形成良好的性格,就是我的

兴趣和爱好所在;在我看来,一个孩子的性格是极其重要的,我要进行指导,让他们度过不安全期,正确地去表达自己,善待他人;否则孩子没有良好的性格,他的一生都是不快乐的。

8:面对很多新人或者频繁跳槽的人您想说些什么?

我们都需要一步一个脚印,频繁跳槽哪一步都会走得不扎实,在很多HR看来,一份工作不到三年,就不算工作;这时我们需要掌握一门技能,扎实地去完成工作;

从整个市场经济来看,只要你努力,最后就会得到公正的待遇;这时需要我们从长远来看,而不是暂时地去看问题;

钱是生存的基础,我不否认它的重要性,但是不能看得太近,你需要去实现自我的价值;能力在哪,钱就在那儿,找到自己利益和能力的结合点,让钱给你自由和快乐。

我们诚邀您抽空回答本问卷,以帮助我们做得更好。谢谢您!(请在选择答案后,点击”Submit Survey”提交,谢谢)

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