心随我动


中央电视台的东方时空曾经报道过这样一个故事:一个农村女人,和大多数她的伙伴一样,在农村淳朴的环境中长大。嫁人、生子,在田间耕耘,相夫教子,日子过得平淡而快乐。可这一切都被修到村边的高速公路改变了。这条路带来了各种各样的车、各种各样的人,让她看到,原来不是每个人都过着和她一样的生活。她买来了电视,她贪婪的看着电视上演绎的各种各样的世界,甚至她努力的读着电视剧中每一个人的台词,在默念中体验着别样的人生。她说,原来我是幸福的,平淡而快乐。可现在因为我看到了一扇门,这扇门通往一个神奇的外面的世界,而我只能望着它,却不能走出去,因为农村传统的道德和我的家庭不允许我这样做,我很痛苦。

正如这个女人一样,我们每个人都有着自己的梦想和渴望;却也正如这个女人一样,我们往往无法随心所欲地去追逐梦想。因为我们身上有无数看不见的绳索牢牢的束缚着我们。这个绳索可能是来自外部的,社会公认的道德、法律,你身上的义务、责任;你的各种各样的角色:你是职员、是老板,你是父亲、是儿子、是朋友、是爱人……,每一个角色都有着这样那样的要求,并有着社会为你树立的完美的标杆。这个绳索也来自于你的头脑和你的内心。“我是谁?”每个人都对自己有个或清晰、或模糊的定义——我是外向的,我是内向的;我细致入微,我不拘小节……。而这种自我定义无疑就确定了自己行为努力的方向。而更加透明很难被我们发现,或者我们不愿意去发现的绳索来自于我们的内心深处,我们心底里的显性或隐性需求:我需要被别人认同,我需要被别人需要……。有多少父母在儿女长大成人之后,对过去怀着无限的眷恋。最怀念儿女小时候的时光。儿女拉着自己的手,象小鹿一样眷恋着父母,如影随行。

忙碌中的人啊,你们有没有问过自己:我在忙着什么?当有一天清晨,繁华退尽,你孑然一身,没有了那么多的社会角色,没有了子女的依赖和对你的需要,这个时候你是否能够告诉自己“我是谁?”我的兴趣?我的观点?我的爱?我的恨?我要什么?所有的一切的一切究竟哪些是我的选择?

当我回首时,我不是为了与心目中的国王跳舞而卑躬屈膝却浑然不知的人;我不是为了别人期许的目光忙忙碌碌却忘记了自己是谁的人;我不是背缚着沉重的十字架艰难前行自己无法喘息的人。因为无论走哪条路,我做出了选择,那是我经过思考后做出的自主选择,我的选择!

那个农村的女人有很多条路可以走,我不知道她最后的选择。也许她象《廊桥遗梦》中的女主人公弗朗西斯卡一样,选择了家庭的责任,而放弃了自己的爱情或梦想。但无论如何,只要是自己的选择,那么无论未来的生活怎样,在自己心里,不再是迷雾,而是一颗晶透的钻石,散发着柔和而又坚定的光芒。
2010年1月4日

Rethinking Training Effectiveness: from the Perspective of Trainees’ Motivation to Learn

Lately, I have been giving a lot of thoughts to the longstanding question that bothers almost all training managers, that is, how to make trainings effective? Of course, our warm hearted training managers and specialists tend to exhaust themselves in their attempt to create conditions for effective training. In this article, I want to first differentiate different types of motivations that could affect training effectiveness; secondly, I want to call attention to conditions/sources of motivation that are often the most critical to learning effectiveness but are oftentimes ignored by training managers and specialists; lastly, I want to briefly explain why brain based learning is oftentimes not as effective as the experiential way of learning when it comes to adult learning.

It is useful to check beforehand where the motivation of the participants stems from. The most attractive participants are those who are motivated to attend the course ‘from within’. The participant actually does not need an incentive. This form of motivation is called ‘intrinsic motivation’. If a participant is motivated by others, this is called ‘extrinsic motivation’. A new job, a possible dismissal or a raise can be the incentives that motivate the partici¬pant. In addition, one may also have to deal with ‘conditional motivation’. Participants are motivated by all kinds of pleasant circumstances that may occur during the course, such as social contacts, etc. In addition, motivation can be influenced in a positive way, when the participant sees a meaningful relation between the learning material and what he is going to do with it. The relevance of the learning material has to be clear to the participants. The gap from theory to practice needs to be as small as possible.

What I would like to stress is that while we oftentimes recognize how external factors, such as a pay rise or a promotion opportunity can help to motivate organizational employees to learn, the ideal participants are those who are internally motivated. In reality, when identifying training needs and deciding sending whom to what training programs, HR practices can include HRs or functional managers subjectively nominating participants to attend certain learning programs. Referring back to the above mentioned motivational factors and conditions, clearly when that happens, individuals are not internally motivated to learn; neither is the participant likely to see a clear goal of the learning—the meaningful relevance of the learning. In other situations, organizational employees are sent to certain training programs due to negative performance review in certain areas (according to their direct managers) or gaps between individual competency status and competencies required for a given job according to organizational competency models. Clearly, when participants show up in a training program for the above mentioned reasons, they can be very much goal driven and can see clear “meaningful relevance” of their learning. Nevertheless, they may not be internally motivated to learn. That is, if their managers or others (say, people who are the 360 degree feedback givers) believe they should improve in certain areas, the level of motivation on the participants are still not the same as when the participants themselves recognize the needs. Therefore, only when employees are very much involved in the process of identifying learning needs and gaps and are consulted with before being sent to a training program, can they be internally motivated to learn. Clearly, the more attention we give to this step of learning preparation, the more effective we can expect the learning results to be.

Becoming internally motivated is not only relevant to the process of identifying learning needs, it is also relevant to the process of learning itself, that is, the training methods. It is not difficult to imagine, for example, a participant who is very much motivated and eager to learn comes to a very boring and didactic style training program, his/her enthusiasm for learning is immediately dampened by what is actually happening in the training site. So their internal motivation needs to be sustained in the training as well, which has a lot to do with how training is actually organized and conducted.

Traditionally, training is trainer-centered and brain-based. First, in terms of roles that trainers and participants play in training, one option is that trainers are the “stars” occupying the central stage. They are supposed to be experts that have solutions to all problems that their trainees might have. The type of training can be effective when the participants can see clear relevance to their real work situations, they cases that the trainers give can be transferrable to their work settings, and that they believe that the trainers’ knowledge and experience is relevant and helpful to their problems. Alternatively, the internal motivation of the participants can be better secured through making them the center of learning. That is, trainers are coaches and facilitators and the content of the training is from their real work and life experiences of the participants (sometimes they get help in training periodically while they are engaged in real projects). First, adults learn best or are the most motivated to learn through self awareness and self reflections. Coaches thus play the questioning role most of the time. The trainees consequently drive the process of learning with their own problems. In my opinion, this latter way of training, what we call, the experiential way of learning, fits the characteristics of adult learning much better in many situations, as they are more trainee centered (coaching/facilitating style versus didactic style) and are more directly related to application (action and behavior based versus brain based). I devote the last part of my article to an explanation of the difference between brain based training and the experiential way of learning.

Traditional training and education focuses often on the left brain (aiming at ratio, logic, analyses, language, with as result automatisms based on insight). it assumes too much that learning is made possible by the logic of the new information. The logic in itself should bring forward learning. Features of these interventions are: instruction/demonstration, systematic practice and giving feedback. At the most this kind of learning leads to the fact that the learner can tell what he has learned but in fact does not use the knowledge in his daily practice. As a result there is asynchrony between what employees think (their theories and conceptions) and what they actually do (their daily routines).

To activate the right brain part (feelings, experiences, associations, images, with as result experience based behavior), trainers should work more with imaginative language, powerful metaphors and behavior instructions. With telling how to act, without very much explaining why, it is expected that workers will act in the desired way and that insight will follow behavior . When you use a more explaining way of instruction (selling) it is expected that the logic will convince the worker and the new insight will trigger the behavior. Clearly, the linkage between theory and application can be much closer in the experiential way of learning.
To summarize, in this article I call for new perspectives and new ways of thinking in terms of guaranteeing the effectiveness of training. Training managers have been frustrated by looking for solutions to ensure the effectiveness of training. They may be happily surprised if they start to focus more on the internal motivation of the participants, not only from the perspective of identifying training needs, but also from the perspective of identify the right training methods. We can create all favorable conditions for our participants by selecting brand name vendors, by providing pleasant training environments, by developing complex competency models and elaborated process of performance appraisals, but in the end, the people who we want to train have a more decisive impact on the result of training. Only when we give sufficient attention to their motivation to learn, can we have a better chance of being effective in training them.

在挣扎中成长


在培训之前,也曾经考虑过自己到底是一个什么样的人,但是从来没有这么直接的、清醒的、甚至残酷的审视过自己。而通过TFT的培训,我终于有勇气、有机会直面自己,面对那个我喜欢的自己、面对那个我不了解的自己、面对那个我不愿意面对的自己。

我的培训师对我说,如果你想让自己的内心变得强大,你必须要首先了解自己,你只有了解了自己的强势和弱势,你才能更好的掌控和提高自己,才有可能真正的打开自己的心门,了解和接纳别人,尤其是那些与你意见相左的人。

我开始在培训的练习中和日常生活中观察自己的行为和心理活动,并从培训师和其他的学员那里得到真诚的反馈。

我开始了解到,自己原来是一座休眠的火山,外表风平浪静,心里却隐藏了很多的想法和能量。我开始庆幸自己还没有这样的经历:将对别人的不满与愤怒压在心里,不断膨胀,最后非理性的爆发,伤到自己也损害他人。于是,我开始使用果断力培训中学到的方法去寻求正确的释放方式。我还发现,原来有的时候说出自己的真实想法可以帮助别人去了解我,发现我思维中的亮点,而当我因此得到正面的反馈时,获得的不只是惊喜,还有对自己潜力的挖掘和肯定。

既而我又发现,经常在我做决定的时候,内心里有两种力量在争斗:“我想要…”和“我应该…”。当这两种力量不一致时,我总是在权衡,在犹豫。而我突然意识到,大多数的时候,我会在争斗后选择去遵守一些规则,选择相对保守的做法,选择按照别人的意愿去做事情,做我觉得应该做的,即使在这样做的时候自己很不情愿也很不开心。而这样做本身也带给我挫败感和因困惑而带来的压力。比如说,我的同事经常在工作的时候哼歌儿,让我没办法专心工作。我想去提醒他,但是我又怕她觉得我多事儿,于是我就忍住了。但是,当我决定保持沉默之后,我不自觉地更注意他发出的声响,变得愈发的烦躁,更没有办法专业工作,而且对自己很懊恼。我找到培训师谈了我的想法和感受,她问我:那你想要什么?我说:做我想做的。培训师告诉我,行为改变不是一朝一夕的事情,不要对自己太苛刻。意识到了本身就是一个进步,接下来要在每天的生活和工作中去尝试改变,找到你自己的平衡点。

突然想起孔子的一句话:三十而立,四十不惑,五十知天命,六十而耳顺,七十心从所欲,不逾矩。人到七十的时候才能学习修炼成这种境界:顺心而为,自然合法,动念不离乎道。

我从现在开始起步在这方面提升自己,应该也还不算晚吧。

我们诚邀您抽空回答本问卷,以帮助我们做得更好。谢谢您!(请在选择答案后,点击”Submit Survey”提交,谢谢)

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听到自己的声音

导语:在成为思腾高级培训师之前,她曾有过数年的海外留学经历;在美国名师的熏陶和推荐下,她成功跻身美国竞争激烈的大学教授之列;几年之后她毅然归国,加入了软技能培训师的队伍。跨越中西文化的阅历,使她形成了自己独特的个人魅力,最终得到了众人的赏识;现在的她每天都很积极都很快乐,这一切源于她深爱着自己所从事的职业。

访谈对象:张慧妍
工作单位:荷兰思腾集团
职位:教学总监、高级培训师
工作年限:10年

1:您是怎么走入欧洲的顶级教育培训集团思腾中国做培训师的?

我是两年前开始做思腾的,之前有十年的海外留学经历;当我回国时,惊奇地发现思腾的课程是如此系统和完善;它所倡导的软技能培训和我在国外所学的组织沟通学的专业是完全匹配的;我们的专业领域是团队建设、领导力、演讲技能等;而思腾也把这个理念带到了中国,所以当时我很顺利地带着自己的文化和鲜明的观点进入了这家公司;我同时也看到能够在如此大的规模下,他们能保持鲜明的教学特色,并且荷兰的培训师们都非常专业,我非常高兴自己能够成为他们中的一员。

2:可以说您的加入,应该对于您自己和企业来说都是双赢的?

是的。我在美国的职业是大学教授,当时感觉自己的特长不能充分展现出来,看不到专业的实效性,这时我想回来给中国的企业做培训,这样我可以更清晰地看到自我价值的存在。另一方面,从公司招人的角度来看,思腾独特的培训方法其实对培训师的要求非常之高。因此,找到合适的培训师是个挑战。中国留学生学组织沟通学这个专业的人很少,毅然从美国归来的就更少。

我相信思腾所精通的软技能培训在中国市场上会很有前景。举个例子,在国外大多数本科生一定是要必修的“公共演讲”这门课的,否则拿不到学位证;可想而知国外学校对一个人的演讲能力的重视程度;无论在什么情况下,作为社会中的人,你都是要出去和别人打交道的;包括从学生会主席的竞选到美国民主选举总统,你必须要通过讲演去推销自己。而中国发展的趋势也慢慢需要做大量的演讲及软技能培训,全面提高自己乃至企业的社会认可度。思腾的软性管理强调以人为本,重视组织成员的心理需求,有利于充分挖掘员工的内在潜力,实现最优化管理。从抽象思维地去阅读去想去做,到最后进入培训课指导;这一段历程让我感觉到工作很有趣,生活很快乐。

3:现在您的日常工作是什么呢,它需要什么样的能力?第一是要做培训,给企业做内训;主要有销售课程,然后起草建议书,从学员的访谈到培训,从头到尾全面负责;

第二打造专业团队,让管理工作专业角度化,让其本土化进行市场包装,从荷兰那边拿到最新的东西再通过本土化引入中国市场;

第三参与本公司的运营,营销和市场这一块。

我从来就相信一个人的机遇一定是有一定的理由在里面的,我喜欢他们的培训方式和倡导的原则,让人果敢自信,让每个人参与进来,也不是进行大道理的宣讲;

尊重了每个学员,让他们在其中体验和展示自己的行为,进行互动,然后我观察他们的行为,找出突破口,然后进行反馈,找到可以提高的地方然后让他们开始重新去做。比如在人与人进行交往时,要注意眼光和手的力度的把握等,剖析、认同、改变。

这需要强大的心理学在支撑,这具有科学的根据,内容不变,但是形势更改,不能告诉学员发生了什么,要他们自己去调整达到良好的效果。

尤其现在的80后是很有个性的一族,他们在培训时不喜欢某种方式就会不需要你的,而经过两年的培训课的教学,学员都是一致认可我的,有些客户甚至很满意,我想这对于我来说是很有收效的成果。

培养学员和自己身上应该有的果敢力,坚持自己的同时也不能去冒犯别人;我们考虑的是双赢,达到人与人之间的平衡,而不是中庸妥协。

4:您在工作中遇到过困难吗,您是如何去克服的?

这是需要相当的情商和智商的一门职业,做软技能培训;

我以前有过批判到抗争到最后的接受,我们的课并不是用PPT来讲的,每次培训都需要去了解企业的人,企业的文化,个人的顾虑等等,这期间是个学不完的过程;在课堂上永远需要你去观察,然后想到怎么去干预,一定要说到学员的心坎里去,让他们愿意去做去学等;

应该说这门学科也是学无止境,我需要每天大量地进行阅读学习,才能够克服工作中出现的问题;从照抄到创新,不断更新的东西;我需要独树一帜,用高标准完善自己,这样才能对得起客户;

中国的很多培训是娱乐性的,有时学员听完很多有趣的事情,笑过后就忘记了;整堂课下来,都不会去上厕所的;事后尽管没有收效,但很多企业还在进行每年的重复劳动,而我们主张的是在对抗触动中学习;针对每一个人的特点,让他们的行为成就出更讨人喜欢的自己,生活的更加愉快;

当然目前我对自己是很满意的。

5:您最擅长哪方面的东西,如何让它得到发挥?

这是一份特别的工作,我最擅长的事情就是让每个学员迅速得到放松,可能因为本身的性格就比较随和容易让人放松;我通常会在上课前精心安排一个活动,让他们自觉融进去,不知不觉得到放松,而不是纯粹地去说教。

我上课是放权的,让学员主动去发挥自己的主观能动性;一位荷兰教授听了我的课给出了这样的评价,就是从说话到一种独特的方式的形成到学员愿意主动过来沟通,达到一定的说服力,一切都是通畅的很合理的,让人得到放松。

我想这就是我需要解决办法的能力所在。

6:在成长过程中,哪些事或哪些人对您影响是很深的?

我在美国上学时,和一群女孩子做一个项目;在交流时,我经过拼命的思想斗争最后还是没有发表自己的观点,保持沉默,最后我得了C,比小组其他人都要差的一个分数等级;后来我的教授对我说,不说话的人是不想改变自己的,这是对自己和对他人都不负责任的表现。

后来我就学会开始说话,开始发表自己观点;之前,从来没有人告诉我不说话是不负责任的事情,是那位教授提醒了我。

如果没有他的帮助,我想我可能不会变成现在的自己。

试想在会议上没有人敢发表自己的观点,一直听不到声音,也是不负责任的表现,这是需要您亮出自己的观点,从而被证明您是有想法的,否则很多事情办不成,达不到目的。

7:除了工作,您平时还有什么样的兴趣和爱好吗?

我的家里还有两个儿子,需要我去照顾;除了工作我基本没有什么时间去娱乐活动;下班后除了学习以外,还要照顾他们,培养他们形成良好的性格,就是我的

兴趣和爱好所在;在我看来,一个孩子的性格是极其重要的,我要进行指导,让他们度过不安全期,正确地去表达自己,善待他人;否则孩子没有良好的性格,他的一生都是不快乐的。

8:面对很多新人或者频繁跳槽的人您想说些什么?

我们都需要一步一个脚印,频繁跳槽哪一步都会走得不扎实,在很多HR看来,一份工作不到三年,就不算工作;这时我们需要掌握一门技能,扎实地去完成工作;

从整个市场经济来看,只要你努力,最后就会得到公正的待遇;这时需要我们从长远来看,而不是暂时地去看问题;

钱是生存的基础,我不否认它的重要性,但是不能看得太近,你需要去实现自我的价值;能力在哪,钱就在那儿,找到自己利益和能力的结合点,让钱给你自由和快乐。

我们诚邀您抽空回答本问卷,以帮助我们做得更好。谢谢您!(请在选择答案后,点击”Submit Survey”提交,谢谢)

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